Sustainable Design: Building for Resilience
Increased climate variability and surging population growth are placing greater demands on limited resources such as water, energy, and physical space. 我们的团队正在考虑如何ca88亚州城建筑和基础设施，以更有效地应对这些压力，并在未来表现良好. Facilities need to be built not only to operate in greater harmony with nature but also to withstand the forces it may unleash.
Tetra Tech understands the value of resiliency planning and sustainable design 应对与不断变化的世界相关的新风险. We develop unique solutions to some of the toughest problems—using both cutting-edge technologies and commonsense approaches.
As conceptual frameworks, 弹性和可持续性越来越多地指导规划决策, design, and engineering of our projects. 韧性强调稳健性和恢复能力, while sustainability considers measures of environmental impact and resource conservation. Both concepts share common end goals in contributing to society’s capacity to thrive in a meaningful way. In this article, we highlight Tetra Tech projects that represent some of the industry’s very best examples of resiliency planning and sustainable design.
Increasing threats associated with storm surges, sea level rise, and higher intensity weather underscore the importance of resiliency strategies for addressing climate-related risks. Tetra Tech is working with clients on adaptation measures to reduce risks to vulnerable communities.
Communities in the Hawaiian Islands are very familiar with both dramatic weather events, such as hurricanes, and more gradual changes in their landscape, including coastal erosion. Hawai‘i is working proactively to make its communities more resilient through extensive planning and preparation. Tetra Tech worked with the Hawai‘i Department of Land and Natural Resources to prepare the 夏威夷海平面上升脆弱性和适应报告, which assesses and quantifies Hawaii’s vulnerability to sea level rise from passive flooding, annual high wave flooding, and shoreline erosion. Our team also provided recommendations for reducing exposure and increasing adaptability.
“Coastal communities need to incorporate exposure to chronic coastal flooding with sea level rise into land use and development plans,” said Dr. Catherine (Kitty) Courtney, a Hawai‘i-based marine environmental scientist with Tetra Tech who led the report development. “In addition, communities need a pre-disaster strategy that involves a carefully thought-out reconstruction plan. How can we be best ready to take advantage of a disaster to build back better, should an event occur? Communities need scenarios that would allow them to reconstruct in a way that reduces risk from sea level rise.”
Tetra Tech used model outputs provided by the University of Hawai‘i School of Ocean, Earth Sciences, and Technology, 海岸地质组开发海平面上升暴露区, analyze chronic flooding risks, 并提供建议和行动来提高夏威夷的适应能力. Some of the key recommendations include practicing sustainable and resilient land use and community development, incentivizing improved flood risk management, 优先考虑在海平面上升敏感区之外进行智能重建.
“It’s critical that at-risk communities integrate sea level rise into long-range planning,” Kitty said. “土地使用计划应该确定弹性建设的最佳机会，并考虑到海平面上升的风险，这样重建工作就不会集中在预计30年后将长期遭受洪水的地区.”
After Superstorm Sandy, critical infrastructure and equipment in buildings such as the Newport Financial Center in New Jersey were relocated to higher floors. Photo Courtesy of Lefrak
Sometimes communities do not conduct resilience planning until after disaster strikes. 超级风暴桑迪对美国造成的严重破坏.S. eastern seaboard, and especially New York and New Jersey, underscored the need for urban communities to incorporate more resiliency against extreme weather events into their planning. In New York City, 桑迪的风暴潮导致街道被洪水淹没, tunnels, and subway lines that resulted in a loss of power and severe damage to buildings and infrastructure. The Port Authority of New York and New Jersey estimated its total infrastructure losses at $2.2 billion.
Following the storm, Cosentini, A Tetra Tech Company, assisted the New York City Housing Authority and other entities to deliver recovery solutions, disaster assessment, and long-term resiliency planning and implementation for several storm-damaged buildings and infrastructure in Manhattan and Jersey City. Projects included Waterside Plaza, the United Nations International School, Peter Cooper Village, 以及华尔街的大型商业和多用途建筑.
“When the storm surge hit, floodwater poured into basements, devastating buildings,” said Douglas Mass, PE, LEED AP, president of Cosentini. “Since most of a building’s mechanical, electrical, and plumbing (MEP) equipment is traditionally located below grade, 这些基础设施遭到严重破坏或完全被摧毁. Electrical switchgear was coated with salt water and fuel oil tanks were flipped over, spilling hazardous materials.”
In floodproofing buildings, Tetra Tech redesigned building systems to move critical infrastructure and vulnerable MEP equipment—such as electrical switchgear, fuel pumps, fire pumps, and fire alarm systems—to higher floors, 使其高于联邦紧急事务管理局的洪水水位. 这些搬迁后来被纳入建筑法规.
“长期弹性是ca88亚州城规划未来极端事件，并创造一个建筑对ca88亚州城们工作和生活安全的环境,” Douglas said. “It is about ensuring critical facilities such as hospitals and fire and police stations can stay operational, have reliable power, and be able to communicate. 我们研究了如何保持可靠的水流向建筑物，并进行了废水系统的改造——用弹性和防涝设备取代无泵站，以在发生水浸的情况下保持处理操作的运行.”
Planning efforts to make urban environments more resilient should consider both the physical and technological aspects of an emergency response plan, said Onorius Vaidean, 利乐ca88亚州城信息技术总监. “With emergency response communication systems, we add redundancies and diverse designs to ensure there is always a backup and not one single point of failure that could take an entire system down,” Onorius said.
Where resilience asks how to build infrastructure that can withstand a changing environment, sustainability considers how facilities can be designed to integrate with their surroundings—minimizing environmental impacts, waste generation, and energy consumption. Tetra Tech’s growing global sustainable infrastructure practice is using innovative design approaches to control temperature, reduce energy costs, and conserve water.
Overlooking some of Sydney’s best vistas, ITS吸引了澳大利亚一些最大的公司作为租户. Photo courtesy of LENDLEASE
ITS, 由Barangaroo南区的Lendlease开发, 是悉尼最大的城市更新项目的一部分吗. 这三座大楼总共提供了27万平方米的a级办公空间. 这些建筑融合了各种创新ca88亚州城和工程特点，共同推动了可持续发展的高峰.
Lendlease retained Australia-based Norman Disney & Young, A Tetra Tech Company, to provide mechanical, electrical, communications, security, 并对三个塔楼进行了建筑信息建模ca88亚州城.
Our team undertook a collaborative process with Lendlease Applied Insight to design an air conditioning system serving all three towers. The unique, 高度复杂的解决方案在塔的中心区域采用被动冷梁，在外围区域采用由可变风量系统控制的主动冷梁. To optimize system performance, the team focused on the building facades, collaborating with the project architect and Lendlease Applied Insight on design strategies to limit the maximum load on any given facade.
The design process for the facades was representative of how the team approached every solution, according to Richard Pickering, project manager in our Sydney office. “让建筑尽可能的高效和可持续, we looked at every element in great detail,” he said. “我们优化了系统的技术方面, the supply air, the chilled water, how energy was transferred around the building, and the use of heat recovery systems to ensure we were achieving the highest performance.”
Another major design consideration for the ITS project was to construct the buildings with the future in mind. “As building services engineers, our responsibility is to incorporate elements into the design that are truly sustainable and will contribute to energy efficiency and reducing our carbon footprint; but part of that also relates to how the systems and the building itself can be designed with adaptability for future flexibility and to address possible climate impacts,” Richard said.
ITS的一项“面向未来”的ca88亚州城包括为所有建筑系统建立一个单一的综合通信网络，该网络使用开放的通信协议，为其他系统和未来技术提供能力. Moreover, while the building was initially commissioned for ventilation for one person every 10 square meters, the actual handling equipment and risers were sized to handle one person per 8 square meters, 考虑到未来更高的ca88亚州城口密度.
“拥有一个可伸缩的建筑和设备，以适应继续以最高效率运行，这可能是建筑的可持续性和在未来几年保持相关能力的最重要的因素之一。,” Richard said.
我们的团队随后为其租户ca88亚州城了可持续的室内ca88亚州城, 包括一些澳大利亚最大的上市公司. Our designs provide modern, flexible, technologically enhanced work spaces that have led to reduced energy requirements and improved staff engagement.
The 73-story Wilshire Grand, 美国西部最高的建筑, 最大限度地减少能源和水的使用，并获得LEED金奖认证. Photo courtesy of Hunter Kerhart
The design elements—and the strategic use of those elements—that go into creating a building facade play a critical role in energy performance. With the Wilshire Grand, 洛杉矶市中心的一座73层的酒店和办公大楼, California, 也是美国西部最高的建筑, 在概念阶段进行的围护结构研究提供了一个理想的立面ca88亚州城，平衡了能源效率和美学，以帮助满足项目积极的可持续发展目标.
Glumac, A Tetra Tech Company, 进行了一项针对多方面ca88亚州城挑战的围护结构分析:创建一个高性能的围护结构——室内外环境之间的物理屏障——将业主的优先考虑的ca88亚州城与甲级办公空间和五星级酒店相结合. Tetra Tech’s Los Angeles and New York City offices collaborated to develop design concepts. 我们的团队分析了众多的包膜替代品，并仔细考虑了气候因素和特定的场地条件如何影响性能. 通过能量模型获得的数据和见解使项目团队能够微调包络参数——确定窗户玻璃的最佳使用, vision glass, insulation, and shading devices—to optimize both the elegance and the energy efficiency of the facade. 利用他们在高层建筑方面的专业知识, our New York City office also provided peer reviews throughout design and construction.
“我们开发了能源模型，并评估了不同窗户和墙壁配置对不同朝向的建筑立面可能产生的影响,” said Michael Adams, LEED AP, BD+C, energy analyst with Tetra Tech. “因为南加州是一个冷却驱动的环境, 我们专注于建筑南、西两面的效率，这里的冷负荷是最高的，特别是在太阳直射的傍晚时分.”
In engineering a final design, our team worked closely with the owner to maximize the provision of windows without sacrificing energy performance. “This required balancing the owner’s expectations with the project’s energy goals as well as the California energy code, which is one of the strictest in the country,” said Kameron Beeks, LEED AP BD+C, 他是利乐ca88亚州城(Tetra Tech)驻洛杉矶的机械工程师.
利乐ca88亚州城还与项目结构工程师合作, as the structural framing for the Wilshire Grand required large columns on the perimeter of the building. “We collaborated with their team to set up a grid that enabled the columns to be placed in locations acceptable to the hotel and office tenants, but which still benefited the facade in terms of energy savings and creating optimal window sizes,” Kameron said.
Combined with other energy-efficiency measures, the Wilshire Grand’s high-performance facade design is anticipated to help save $896,428 annually on energy costs—a 24.总体能源成本降低2%——相对于ASHRAE 90.1 2007年基准，建筑节能ca88亚州城的最低要求.
Tetra Tech helped create a towering structure that is a benchmark for sustainable design and technological innovation in China. Photo courtesy of Gensler
离威尔希尔格兰德还有半个地球的距离 Shanghai Tower它是中国最高的建筑，世界第二高的建筑. 上海中心大厦高632米(128层)，包括5个以上,500,000 square feet, including Class A office space, retail space, a boutique hotel, and cultural venues.
这个备受瞩目的项目因其新颖的建筑ca88亚州城、可持续技术和可再生能源系统的使用而获得了全球赞誉. Rainwater harvesting, a blackwater treatment system, cogeneration, ice storage, a geothermal system, 270 wind turbines, 生物气候ca88亚州城以双层表皮立面为特色，以减少供暖和制冷负荷，这些令ca88亚州城印象深刻的特点帮助上海中心大厦获得了LEED白金认证——这是一个罕见的超高层建筑称号. But what might be less known is the sheer impact of the underlying engineering of the tower’s systems and designs on energy savings.
Shanghai Tower & Construction Co., Ltd. selected Tetra Tech to provide MEP, fire protection, telecommunications, audiovisual, 并对铁塔进行安全系统工程ca88亚州城. Our team collaborated with the project architect, Gensler, to develop an MEP strategy that would create a new regional benchmark for building systems design.
“Based on the architect’s concept of splitting the tower into nine vertical neighborhoods, we began viewing the structure as several smaller buildings stacked on top of each other,” said Edward Barbieri, PE, LEED AP, principal engineer. “That became the basis for the MEP design.”
Shanghai Tower’s energy-efficient design reduces source energy consumption while maintaining user comfort and high indoor air quality.
Working closely with the architect, 我们的团队帮助开发了中庭缓冲区，以降低冷却成本. The building design incorporated 15-story, 360度的中庭为整个塔的高度, and Tetra Tech developed an HVAC design that minimized energy use by dual purposing the building’s spill air to provide conditioning to these zones. We also integrated efficient strategies into the building design such as heat recovery systems, 多个中央工厂，低能量传输和有效的传热, and overhead variable air volume air conditioning systems with demand-control ventilation.
In approaching the project, Ed said his team had four main goals: to create an energy-efficient design based on high-quality and high-efficiency equipment; to reduce source energy consumption; to design a building automation system with control strategies to minimize energy consumption while maintaining user comfort and system reliability; and to ensure a high indoor air quality environment.
Compared to base scheme estimates, the building achieved 45 percent lower lifecycle energy costs and 25 percent overall energy savings, 其中70%来自机电设备ca88亚州城.
“可持续发展目标应该在项目开始时就确立, 在ca88亚州城过程的早期，业主和建筑师与MEP工程师共同制定战略，审查各种选项，并结合最佳的系统来实现这些目标,” Ed said. “我们相信采取全面的方法来实现可持续发展, specifying efficient systems that reduce a building’s environmental impact while also looking at resiliency and hardening methods,” he said. “为了更好的未来，我们必须ca88亚州城更好的建筑.”
Built according to the eco-district framework, “第八号哈萨罗”整合了大量的能源节约, water, and waste streams. Photo courtesy of Lara Swimmer
The eco-district concept, originated by the City of Portland, Oregon, and the Portland Sustainability Institute, is an emerging model of building design and community development that emphasizes sustainable, 社区层面的城市再生注重社会协作, economic, and ecological designs. The concept is rooted in social equity, economic opportunity, inclusion, 以及共享基础设施的好处——通过使用单一的水, energy, and waste systems across multiple buildings, 可以提高效率，减少对环境的影响.
利乐ca88亚州城能够在能源方面获得显著的节约, water, 废物流采用综合方法进行综合利用 Hassalo on Eighth 按照生态区框架建设的项目. The Hassalo on Eighth development includes 657 apartment units and ground-level retail space dispersed over three buildings, an outdoor urban plaza, and the largest bicycle hub in North America. Among the numerous sustainable features integrated into the project design are stormwater swales, green roofs, and rainwater catchment. Tetra Tech provided MEP, lighting, 并进行低压ca88亚州城以及能耗分析和基础调试, joining a team of firms on the project including GBD Architects and developer American Assets Trust.
One of the innovative shared features of Hassalo on Eighth is the Natural Organic Recycling Machine (NORM), a decentralized wastewater treatment and reuse system that treats all greywater and blackwater from the development for reuse in toilet flushing, cooling tower usage, and irrigation, 用任何可用的多余的地下水进行补给. Tetra Tech, in collaboration with Biohabitats, GBD Architects, and PLACE Studio, worked to integrate the system, 它将废水通过包括缺氧反应器在内的11步处理过程, trickling filters, and a series of constructed wetlands.
NORM helps ease the burden on Portland’s aging, strained combined stormwater and sewage system, demonstrating that development-scale innovation can play a role in improving water quality in the Willamette River. The system diverts 45,000 gallons of wastewater per day from entering the city’s combined sewer system and saves up to 20,350 gallons of potable water daily.
“将节约的水和下水道与城市开发费降低结合起来, 水系统的ca88亚州城预计将在三年内收回成本,” said Mario LaMorticella, 利乐ca88亚州城(Tetra Tech)的波特兰项目工程师.
Our team also designed a central condenser water loop for the project that facilitates thermal energy sharing. “我们ca88亚州城了一个新的机械系统，并升级了现有商业建筑的中央公用事业工厂，通过共享冷凝器水系统与新建筑相结合,” Mario said. “The system uses heat exchangers and allows for each building to either extract or reject heat, depending on what’s needed.”
哈萨罗8号获得了LEED v4三重白金认证.S. 绿色建筑委员会将其命名为2017年LEED年度最佳住宅项目.
“The hope is that this design will inspire other projects to embrace the same kind of model,” Mario said. “如果一个相邻的街区是基于生态区概念开发的, it could open further opportunities to weave in shared and beneficial exchanges with Hassalo on Eighth.”
A commitment to our future
A city is the sum of its parts—buildings, communities, coastlines—and efforts to enhance long-term resilience and sustainability must reach across all of them. 利乐ca88亚州城的社区弹性专家和全球可持续基础设施团队正在展示通过合作可以实现的目标, creativity, 以及对计划的最高原则坚定不移的奉献, design, and engineering. 通过领导提高弹性和可持续性的项目, we can continue to deliver the most effective solutions to our clients and help ensure a vibrant and enduring future.