Dr. Sarah Richards是每个和多氟烷基物质(PFAS)化学污染领域的杰出领导者, helping Australian Department of Defence (Defence) clients find solutions to address their contamination problems. 萨拉自2002年以来一直在利乐ca88亚州城工作, 并从1994年开始从事受污染土地咨询和研究行业. 她领导了可行性评估, 污染物运输评估, ca88亚州城类健康风险评估, 被污染的土地, 地下水评估(包括硫酸), 气体, 和新兴污染物), 并为环境审计和责任管理项目提供专家咨询.

Sarah frequently gives technical presentations for client groups at local and international conferences and for in-house training sessions. She is committed to innovation and research and currently is involved in developing remedial techniques as an industry partner on an Australian Research Council linkage project, 哪个部门促进了公私部门的研究伙伴关系. Sarah has appeared as an expert witness in Victorian Civil and Administrative Tribunal and Planning Panel Victoria hearings, 并在向最高法院提交的仲裁案件中提供了专家意见. She has also held Victorian committee positions for the Australasian Land and Groundwater Association (ALGA) and Australian Contaminated Land Consultants Association, 维护行业内的专业网络, 他是ALGA的现任董事.

最近,萨拉的注意力集中在新出现的污染物上. Sarah通过提供对污染物迁移机制的了解,为降低风险服务增加了价值, 监管框架, 和风险评估. Sarah的工作在利乐ca88亚州城公司受到追捧, 她对所参与的任何项目都能提供高质量的领导和建议. 她很负责,总是能按时完成任务.

Sarah has recent experience leading large projects for the Defence and has played an active role in stakeholder engagement and as an advisor on environmental assessment projects. Sarah led the scoping and delivery of a detailed site investigation (in accordance with the National Environment Protection Measure 1999) for Defence in relation to legacy PFAS contamination associated with the historic use of AFFF products at Royal Australian Air Force Base Darwin.

Sarah holds a bachelor’s in Civil and Environmental Engineering from the University of Adelaide and a doctorate in Geoenvironmental Engineering from Monash University.


国防部在处理基地遗留污染方面面临哪些挑战?

国防部的需求,甚至部队本身,都会随着时间的推移而改变. 这些变化可能导致改变基地设施的类型和位置. Decisions are made at the time of need about which products and equipment best meet the capability needs given the environmental constraints or policies in force at a particular time. 如果一个产品或材料后来被分类为危险, 然后开始调查遗留污染的程度和风险. 有关产品容量和使用情况的文件有时不再可用, 哪些使评估污染的过程复杂化. 除了, 随着时间的推移, 发生了基地布局的更改, 结构拆除, 标准程序也会发生变化.

对遗留污染的适当评估需要回顾历史信息, 将这些信息和轶事信息交叉比对, 然后使用精心ca88亚州城的采样系统来验证信息的准确性. 在执行这些任务时, 顾问们必须牢记,国防基地的作战活动仍在继续, and mission-critical exercises or estate redevelopment/refurbishment may be occurring in parallel with the environmental assessment activities.

防御与商业客户有何不同?

国防几乎提供了整个城市所能提供的所有服务. 除了防卫相关的行动, 基地里的其他活动还包括做衣服, 烹饪食物, 操作医院, 提供培训, 维修复杂的机械, 分配燃料, 维护一个非常大的设施. 以保持机器运转, 国防有一系列共同的标准, 流程, 还有控制一切的程序,从采购到处置. 

国防客户有很多项目和目标,这些都是同时发生的. 有时, 这些项目是互补或串联的, 其他时候,他们会争夺资源.

Defence clients rely on our sound technical advice to help them identify effective approaches to get the projects to completion. 通过主动识别项目的风险并制定评估和缓解战略, 我们可以成为国防交付团队的有价值的延伸,并顺利完成任务.

因为许多国防项目要持续数年, 甚至几十年, 项目中的团队也将不可避免地在这个过程中发生变化, 项目的组织知识和历史知识有丢失的危险. 在共同的目标上保持沟通和信心是至关重要的.

由于国防行动的规模和邻近社区, 公共, 和媒体, attention can escalate quickly and be sustained for a long period as multiple communities become engaged across a country or region. 同样的对透明度和区域行动的期望很少适用于商业公司. 在污染问题上与国防部合作, consultants need to be sensitive to long-standing community relationships and work within the relevant Defence procedures. There simply isn’t the option to modify procedures at a local level that may be available in private companies. 在许多社区, 防御是社区的关键部分, 而且ca88亚州城们对透明度和细心程度有着很高的期望.

管理PFAS有什么挑战?

在很大程度上, PFAS随水而去, and as a persistent chemical—one that doesn’t degrade to component elements or harmless compounds—the product that was used and discharged 20 years ago is likely still present somewhere in the environment. This means that the PFAS contaminating a waterway today may have started its journey through soil leaching and 地下水 flow decades ago, 也可能是最近被污染的土壤流入水道的结果. 流域内, 也可能有数十个其他来源的PFAS污染,从消防泡沫, 生产流程, 垃圾填埋场, 或污水处理厂.

有效地管理这种持久而广泛的化学物质, we need to know the distribution of contamination in the environment and understand how water moves through soil, 地下水, 小溪, 和排水. 制定环境补救目标是复杂的, as the extent of contamination after 20 years of migration and dispersion means zero tolerance is not a plausible option. 然而, data from a robust risk assessment can be used to identify priority exposure pathways and a good site model can be used to evaluate the relative contributions of different areas of contamination and provide some basis to establish proportionate actions.

在制定管理策略时,最好的方法是什么?

或许很合适, 我认为PFAS的管理方法与自卫行动有很强的相似之处.

  • 减轻攻击. 在进行风险评估之后,可以确定和处理关键的ca88亚州城类暴露途径. 在大多数情况下, 在全球范围内, 这意味着在饮用水受到污染的地区提供替代水源. 立即的行动还可能包括停止一个主源(如.g.、改变产品用途、修理漏罐).
  • 提高自己的地位. 根据现场情况, 地质, 和气候, 可以采取许多潜在的行动来减少土壤和基础设施的淋失, 将受污染的污水从河流中排走, 或者减少地下水的迁移. Each action will improve the isolated position but may not be effective enough to have measurable improvement in overall risk of exposure. Understanding the site model and which areas are contributing by what mechanism is the only way to direct efforts toward actions that have the best chance of success.
  • 保持安全. The state of knowledge regarding PFAS is continually evolving in relation to the criteria and analyses chosen to address the contamination issue. The physical conditions on sites being investigated also change with severe weather patterns or modifications to drainage. 持续的监控程序为识别风险状况的变化提供了信心.

我可以预见到一个没有必要部署地面网络的未来, 因为它已经存在了.

在环境中,有哪些创新被用来管理PFAS? 

在PFAS补救中,有许多领域正在开发和完善. 已证实的技术一般与固定或分离有关, 供应商每年都能提供更有选择性和更高效的产品. 破坏技术, 比如热破坏, 等离子体, 声音分解(通过声音使物质破碎的现象), 典型的超声), 电化学氧化也在发展, 尽管由于它的商业可用性和治疗率, 高温热破坏目前占主导地位. 利乐ca88亚州城正在支持一些创新方法的开发研究, including enhanced biodegradation for destruction and removal of PFAS from contaminated concrete to support recycling.

The biggest improvement that we can help our clients achieve right now is to recognize where PFAS is present in the environment and develop proportionate mitigation measures using the most appropriate range of technologies currently available to reduce the future risk and liability.

你认为这个领域的前景如何?

我认为PFAS重新唤起了公众对环境污染物的兴趣和关注. 由于PFAS的持久性和广泛使用, detectable concentrations can be found almost anywhere and professionals in the environmental science and engineering field are challenged every day with defining the difference between pollution that can be meaningfully addressed, 以及多种扩散源造成的低水平污染.

我想在接下来的几年里, 由于有关环境和区域集中的大量信息被共享, we will get better as an industry at focusing our efforts on the areas where valuable reduction in impact can be achieved, 希望, 我们可以与公众接触,并帮助他们. 除了与国防有关的问题之外, I think we will see a similar increase in 公共 awareness of domestic products that cause widespread environmental contamination, 比如微塑料和阻燃剂.